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Staghorn Sumac

Rhus typhina

Staghorn SumacThe Staghorn Sumac is native to Southeastern Canada and the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Appalachian regions of the United States. Native Americans used the fruit for many medicinal uses, including an astringent, control for vomiting, and a tempering agent for fever, stomach pains, urinary ailments, and sore throats. The root was chewed to ease swollen and infected gums; sumac compresses were applied to burns, cuts, bleeding, and swelling; and it was smoked in a tobacco blend. Most of all, the fruit was used by the Algonquin, the Menominee, the Cherokee, the Ojibwa, and the Potawatomi either fresh or dried for winter storage. The dried sumac was used to create a lemonade-like beverage by submerging the fruit cluster in a bowl of water, letting it steep, wringing it by hand, and straining it to remove residue, for a refreshing, healthful tonic.

The Staghorn Sumac, also known as the Velvet Sumac, is a 15-30 ft. tall, dense, colony-forming, deciduous shrub/small tree with crooked, leaning trunks, velvety twigs, and forked branches that resemble stag’s antlers. The leaves are lemon-scented, a break of the stout twigs exudes a white sap, and the ripened red fruit have a tangy, clean flavor. It is fast-growing, generally pest- and disease-free, and drought-tolerant. Staghorn is an ornamental plant that boosts the vitality of the natural landscape, benefits native birds and beneficial insect species, serves as important winter food for wildlife, and provides pollen, nectar, and nesting areas. Two important things to know about Staghorn Sumac: despite the similar name, Staghorn is not closely related to Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), which bears white, not red, fruit clusters; and sumac is botanically related to cashews and mangoes, so those with allergies to these foods should avoid it.

Sumac can also be used as a natural dye, provides tanneries with a natural tanning agent, and is a popular ornamental choice in landscape design because of its year-round vitality, whether in an urban or suburban setting, industrial or on the edge of the forest. Where the soil is thin and too dry for larger trees, the Staghorn is resilient even when exposed to pollution. The Staghorn spreads well, stabilizing and rehabilitating disturbed habitats. Along with herbaceous annuals and perennials, the Staghorn can re-vegetate mined, industrialized, and stripped sites.

Because of Staghorn’s reputation of very rapid spread, municipalities, farmers, and landowners have tried to either eradicate or control Staghorn sites with chemical herbicides - a misaligned use of both money and labor. Another factor pushing the eradication of Staghorn Sumac is its misidentification as an invasive plant named the Tree of Heaven (Simaroubaceae).

In 2015, Tama Matsuoka Wong, a conservation-minded professional forager, had begun to supply Staghorn and other species of sumac to a number of establishments in the New York City and Philadelphia area, creating a renaissance of appreciation for the unique flavor of the indigenous Staghorn Sumac.

Photo by Daniel Fuchs is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5 Available: Wikimedia Commons

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